Validating a measure of temperament
Cattell also coined the term mental test, and is responsible for the research and knowledge which ultimately led to the development of modern tests.(Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2010) The origin of psychometrics also has connections to the related field of psychophysics. Fechner expanded upon the knowledge he gleaned from Herbart and Weber, to devise the law that the strength of a sensation grows as the logarithm of the stimulus intensity.Although its chair and other members were physicists, the committee also included several psychologists.The committee's report highlighted the importance of the definition of measurement.Galton, often referred to as "the father of psychometrics," devised and included mental tests among his anthropometric measures.James Mc Keen Cattell, who is considered a pioneer of psychometrics went on to extend Galton's work.Around the same time that Darwin, Galton, and Cattell were making their discoveries, Herbart was also interested in "unlocking the mysteries of human consciousness" through the scientific method. Weber built upon Herbart's work and tried to prove the existence of a psychological threshold, saying that a minimum stimulus was necessary to activate a sensory system. A follower of Weber and Fechner, Wilhelm Wundt is credited with founding the science of psychology. Thurstone, founder and first president of the Psychometric Society in 1936, developed and applied a theoretical approach to measurement referred to as the law of comparative judgment, an approach that has close connections to the psychophysical theory of Ernst Heinrich Weber and Gustav Fechner.
The second set of individuals and their research is what has led to the development of experimental psychology, and standardized testing.Charles Darwin was the inspiration behind Sir Francis Galton who led to the creation of psychometrics.In 1859, Darwin published his book "The Origin of Species", which pertained to individual differences in animals.Although widely adopted, this definition differs in important respects from the more classical definition of measurement adopted in the physical sciences, namely that scientific measurement entails "the estimation or discovery of the ratio of some magnitude of a quantitative attribute to a unit of the same attribute" (p.358) Indeed, Stevens's definition of measurement was put forward in response to the British Ferguson Committee, whose chair, A. The committee was appointed in 1932 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science to investigate the possibility of quantitatively estimating sensory events.
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The definition of measurement in the social sciences has a long history.