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The first European penetration was made in the 1670s by the French explorers Father Jacques Marquette and René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle.
British meddling was ended by Jay's treaty later the same year.
The next culture, called Mississippian and dating about AD 900 to 1500, is marked by gardens, ceramics, tools, weapons, trade, and social organization.
It is well illustrated by remains of an extensive village on the north side of the Ohio River near Newburgh.
Government was established by the Continental Congress under the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
Again, Indiana unrest endangered all settlements north of the Ohio, and the small US army, with headquarters at Cincinnati, met defeat at what is now Fort Wayne in 1790 and disaster in neighboring Ohio in 1791.